Technical Series

Expensive, Exploited and Endangered

This report on agarwood-producing species, which is jointly published by ITTO and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), examines the cultivation, inoculation technologies and best management practices of agarwood-producing species and reviews wild and planted agarwood resources as well as processing technologies, products and regulatory practices. The report builds on the outcomes and recommendations of workshops on agarwood convened by ITTO and CITES in 2015, 2018 and 2022.

Published:  November 2022
Author:  Ian D. Thompson, Teckwyn Lim and Maman Turjaman
ID number:  TS-51
ISBN :  978-4-86507-089-7

Not only timber

This report, ITTO Technical Series #50: Not only timber, presented by the Precious Forests Foundation and ITTO, encourages innovative and sustainable business development involving non-timber forest products (NTFPs) that respects the essential attributes of tropical forests. It examines the case for multiple-use management for timber and non-timber products in the tropics, presents an overview of well-established non-timber forest products, showcases case studies of promising non-timber forest products and suggests sustainable harvesting potential of promising NTFPs. The report concludes that given the growing demands on tropical forests for the many goods and ecosystem services they provide, multiple-use management approaches are essential.

This report is available only in English.

Published:  June 2021
Author:  J. Blaser, J. Frizzo & L. Norgrove
ID number:  TS-50
ISBN :  978-4-86507-070-5

Tropical Timber 2050

This report, an output of ITTO’s Biennial Work Programme activity on legal and sustainable supply chains, describes a model developed to forecast trends in tropical timber supply and trade to 2050. It analyzes a number of potential scenarios and examines previous economic and non-economic shocks to estimate the likely time required for the sector to recover to pre-pandemic levels.

Published:  July 2021
Author:  Held, C., Meier-Landsberg, E. & Alonso, V.
ID number:  TS-49
ISBN :  ISBN 978-4-86507-071-2

Fiscal and Non-fiscal Incentives for Sustainable Forest Management

The economic viability of sustainable tropical forestry is often marginal at best, with returns from sustainable timber production and other marketable goods and services comparing poorly to those of alternative land uses. This report, which includes case studies in Brazil, Cambodia, the Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Myanmar, Peru, Thailand and Viet Nam, analyses incentives and disincentives for sustainable forest management in the tropics with a view to assisting ITTO producer member countries to put effective incentives in place. The report is part of ITTO’s ongoing effort to provide knowledge and learning on potential frameworks for incentivizing investments in the sustainable management of natural tropical forests; it makes 22 recommendations for designing incentives that can make a difference in the adoption of sustainable practices in the tropical forest sector.

Published:  April 2021
Author:  Alain Karsenty
ID number:  TS-48
ISBN :  978-4-86507-067-5

Fiscal and Non-fiscal Incentives for Sustainable Forest Management—Annex: Country case studies

This is the annex of an ITTO report prepared by Alain Karsenty and national consultants analysing incentives and disincentives for sustainable forest management in the tropics with a view to assisting ITTO producer member countries to put effective incentives in place. The report is part of ITTO’s ongoing effort to provide knowledge and learning on potential frameworks for incentivizing investments in the sustainable management of natural tropical forests; it makes 22 recommendations for designing incentives that can make a difference in the adoption of sustainable practices in the tropical forest sector.

This annex comprises comprehensive case studies in Brazil, Cambodia, the Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Myanmar, Peru, Thailand and Viet Nam prepared by national consultants. The country reports contained herein (including the original French versions, and their English translations, of the reports for the Congo and Côte d’Ivoire) are as submitted to ITTO by their authors, with minor corrections.

Published:  April 2021
Author:  Alain Karsenty
ID number:  TS-48 Annex

A tabling of views

This report by ITTO and Independent Market Monitoring, is based on a comprehensive survey of the private sector and constitutes an excellent source of information for stakeholders interested in European Union (EU) furniture market trends. It addresses current market conditions and distribution channels for wood furniture exported by voluntary partnership agreements (VPA) countries to the EU; important furniture-trading companies, market influencers and fashion trends; the competitiveness of furniture from VPA countries compared with other sources; and the current and potential role of EU’s Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) licensing in improving market access in the EU for wood furniture from VPA countries.

Published:  October 2018
Author:  George White
ID number:  TS-47
ISBN :  978-4-86507-048-4

The bright green hotspot

This report, written by local and international experts with strong credentials and vast experience on the ground in the Emerald Triangle, sets out the findings and results arising from the many activities conducted under a project designed to encourage greater cooperation between Cambodia, Lao PDR and Thailand in the management of the Emerald Triangle

Published:  November 2017
Author:  ITTO
ID number:  TS-46
ISBN :  978-4-86507-034-7

The global teak study. Analysis, evaluation and future potential of teak resources (IUFRO World Series Vol. 36)

Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) is one of the most valuable tropical hardwoods of the world. Together with other high-grade hardwoods, teak is sought in the global markets for its beauty, strength and stability, natural resistance and wide array of applications ranging from quality furniture through interior joinery to cultural uses. Given the importance of teak, the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO), provided partial funding and commissioned a group of experts from IUFRO, FAO and TEAKNET to conduct a global teak study addressing best practices and lessons learned on the conservation of teak genetic resources and the sustainable management of teak forests in Africa, Asia and Latin America.

Published:  June 2017
Author:  Walter Kollert, Michael Kleine (eds.)
ID number:  WS-36
ISBN :  978-3-902762-77-1

Europe’s changing tropical timber trade

This baseline report was prepared in the inception phase of the Independent Market Monitoring initiative to determine the state of European Union (EU) markets for wood products prior to the issuance of import licences under the EU’s Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade programme. The Independent Market Monitoring initiative has been established under an ITTO project to support the implementation of bilateral voluntary partnership agreements (VPAs) between the EU and participating timber-supplying countries.

Published:  November 2015
Author:  ITTO
ID number:  TS-45
ISBN :  978-4-86507-027-9

The impact of timber procurement policies: an analysis of the economic effects of governmental procurement policies in tropical timber markets

This report provides an analysis of the impacts of TPPs on forest products markets and trade, attempting to discern their effects on timber demand, supply, costs and prices in relevant markets and the financial implications for timber exporting countries. It examines the challenges faced by ITTO producer and consumer countries in complying with and implementing timber procurement requirements and proposes valuable recommendations for further action by ITTO and others to promote trade in tropical timber in the context of TPPs and related measures.

Published:  March 2015
Author:  R. Michael Martin and Baharuddin Haji Ghazali
ID number:  TS-44
ISBN :  978-4-86507-017-0

Technical guide on the quantification of carbon benefits in ITTO projects

This technical guide on the quantification of carbon benefits in ITTO projects is an output of ITTO Project RED-PA 069/11 Rev.1 (F), which was financed through REDDES. The aim of the guide is to support forest managers in monitoring and reporting on the carbon benefits of ITTO projects. Although directed primarily at the managers of ITTO projects, it is likely to also help other forest managers in understanding the scientific, technical and social aspects of climate-change mitigation through forestry.

Published:  January 2015
Author:  Carmenza Robledo Abad
ID number:  TS-43
ISBN :  978-4-86507-016-3

Indicating progress: uses and impacts of criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management

This publication reports the results of an ITTO commissioned study intended to provide information on the experiences of countries worldwide in using C&I, identify trends and developments, and look at ways to increase the impact of ITTO’s C&I in the field. It examines the early evolution of C&I for SFM, developments in the five C&I processes and in international forest policy since 2000, the responses of governments, non-governmental organizations and the private sector to surveys on C&I, and trends and emerging issues related to C&I. It draws firm conclusions and proposes a number of recommendations for ITTO and others to consider.

Published:  April 2014
Author:  Stephanie J. Caswell, Ivan Tomaselli and Sofia R. Hirakuri
ID number:  TS-42
ISBN :  978-4-86507-010-1

Riding out the storm

This report was developed through ITTO’s Thematic Programme on Trade and Market Transparency based on concerns expressed by ITTO producer member countries that the global and economic crisis had exposed the vulnerability and lack of preparedness of the tropical timber sector to manage future global and regional economic crises.

Published:  March 2013
Author:  Frances Maplesden (lead author), Alhassan Attah, Ivan Tomaselli, and Nelson Wong
ID number:  TS-41
ISBN :  4-902045-98-2

Tracking sustainability: review of electronic and semi-electronic timber tracking technologies

Timber tracking and timber products tracking technologies are relatively new and are gaining increasing importance through changing consumer and policy demands. This report is a useful guide to these rapidly evolving technologies.

Published:  October 2012
Author:  Felix Seidel with Emily Fripp, Annie Adams and Ian Denty
ID number:  TS-40
ISBN :  4-902045-95-8

Raising the standards

This report is based on a study to monitor and assess major developments in technical and environmental standards, especially in selected major international markets. The study was designed to facilitate information exchange on technical and environmental standards relating to tropical timber products.

Published:  September 2011
Author:  Jukka Tissari
ID number:  TS-39
ISBN :  4-902045-88-5

Status of tropical forest management 2011

This report details the progress towards sustainable forest management (SFM) in ITTO producer member countries during a period that has seen important global developments of relevance to tropical forests and their management.

Published:  June 2011
Author:  Juergen Blaser, Alastair Sarre, Duncan Poore and Steven Johnson
ID number:  TS-38
ISBN :  4-902045-78-8

Tropical forest tenure assessment

This report was initially prepared as the background document for the Yaoundé Conference in 2009. It generated significant interest in the local, regional and international media; as well as in technical, academic and political arenas related to forests and sustainable development in the tropics, due to the relevance of the information provided in support of innovative policy making to address livelihoods and forest conservation.

Published:  April 2011
Author:  Jeffrey Hatcher and Luke Bailey with assistance from Lopaka Purdy and Marina France
ID number:  TS-37
ISBN :  4-902045-77-X

Leveling the playing field

This study has combined an analysis of global trends impacting on the relative competitiveness of tropical wood products with more detailed analysis of several major tropical wood supply chains drawing on a combination of primary and secondary sources. A major aim of the study was to provide much of the information necessary for tropical wood producers to build more effective market development strategies.

Published:  November 2010
Author:  Rupert Oliver and Ben Donkor
ID number:  TS-36
ISBN :  4-902045-69-9

Good neighbours

This publication contains the proceedings from the International Conference on the Promotion of Intra-Africa Trade in Timber and Timber Products convened in Accra, Ghana in July 2009, and the outcomes of a 2009 study on the regional trade in tropical timber and timber products in Africa, which explored opportunities to further promote the regional trade of forest products from sustainably managed sources.

Published:  June 2010
ID number:  TS-35
ISBN :  4-902045-67-2

The pros and cons of procurement

This study reviews developments and progress regarding timber procurement policies. It assesses the positive and negative impacts of these policies, analyses the main similarities and differences among timber procurement policies, indicates the extent to which suppliers in ITTO member countries are able to meet the requirements and costs of these policies, and evaluates the need and desirability for as well as the practicality of promoting convergence and coordination among timber procurement policies as a means of facilitating the international trade in tropical timber.

Published:  April 2010
Author:  Markku Simula
ID number:  TS-34
ISBN :  4-902045-56-7

Encouraging industrial forest plantations in the tropics

This document is the report of a study on encouraging private-sector investment in industrial forest plantations in the tropics. It assesses the success of forest plantations, taking into account ecological, economic and social aspects and their overall contribution to sustainable development in accordance with the ITTO Guidelines for the Establishment and Sustainable Management of Planted Tropical Forests and ITTO action plans.

Published:  September 2009
ID number:  TS-33
ISBN :  4-902045-52-4

Gifts from the forest

This report of the international conference on the sustainable development of non-timber forest products and services held in Beijing, China presents an overview of the global non-timber forest products and services sector, considerations regarding the growing significance of community forest enterprises in the production of forest products and services, and discussions on policy and practical issues related to the development of markets for carbon and other forest services.

Published:  April 2009
ID number:  TS-32
ISBN :  4-902045-45-1

Energy grows on trees

This report summarizes the presentations and discussions made at the International Conference on Wood-based Bioenergy held in Hannover, Germany, May 2007 as part of LIGNA 2007, the world’s premier exhibition of wood industry technologies. It also includes Powerpoint slides presented by speakers and the conclusions drawn and recommendations made by conference participants. It constitutes the proceedings of the conference.

Published:  November 2008
ID number:  TS-31
ISBN :  4-902045-44-3

Tropical forests and climate change

This report summarizes the deliberations of the International Expert Meeting on Addressing Climate Change through Sustainable Management of Tropical Forests, which met for three days in Yokohama, Japan, in May/June 2008. The meeting fully endorsed the potential role of sustainable forest management in the tropics in both mitigating climate change and helping communities adapt to it.

Published:  1 October 2008
ID number:  TS-30
ISBN :  4-902045-40-0

Developing forest certification

This report describes developments in forest certification worldwide, with a focus on the tropics, including a review of progress towards increasing the comparability and acceptance of forest certification systems.
Additional documentation: Unedited Annexes (see next item)

Published:  May 2008
Author:  Alan Purbawiyatna & Markku Simula
ID number:  TS-29
ISBN :  4-902045-39-7

Community-based forest enterprises

This report describes the status and potential of community forest enterprises in tropical countries.

Published:  October 2007
Author:  A. Molnar, M. Liddle & others
ID number:  TS-28

Issues and opportunities for investment in natural tropical forests

This technical report contains the proceedings of the International tropical forest investment forum: issues and opportunities for investment in natural tropical forests. The Forum made a significant contribution to increase the level of understanding on opportunities and constraints for investments in natural tropical forest based enterprises, and on the kind of information and types of tools available or needed to promote more responsible investment.

Published:  February 2007
Author:  ITTO
ID number:  TS-27
ISBN :  4 902045 32 X

New directions for tropical plywood

This technical report contains the proceedings of an ITTO/FAO International conference on tropical plywood. The conference provided a valuable opportunity for tropical plywood producers and consumers to exchange facts, views and experiences on the industry.

Published:  2006
ID number:  TS-26
ISBN :  4 902045 31 1

Guidebook for the formulation of afforestation and reforestation projects under the Clean Development Mechanism

The CDM project cycle is very demanding on project developers, involving project design and development, validation, registration, monitoring, verification and certification. This publication describes the conceptual and procedural details for formulating afforestation and reforestation projects under the CDM with an introduction to the Kyoto Protocol and the CDM.

Published:  2006
Author:  T. Pearson, S. Walker & S. Brown
ID number:  TS-25
ISBN :  4 902045 30 3

Status of tropical forest management 2005

This report provides a comprehensive analysis of the forest management situation in all 33 of ITTO's producer member countries. Using information submitted by the countries themselves and supplemented by data from a wide range of other sources, it addresses the policy and institutional settings in each country, the approaches taken to the allocation and management of resources, and the status of management of those resources.

Published:  2006
ID number:  TS-24
ISBN :  4 902045 24 9

Restoring forest landscapes: An introduction to the art and science of forest landscape restoration

This publication presents the latest thinking on the emerging concept of forest landscape restoration. A joint production of ITTO and IUCN, it is the result of close collaboration between a number of institutions.

Published:  November 2005
Author:  ITTO/IUCN
ID number:  TS-23
ISBN :  4 902045 23 0

Making the mahogany trade work

This report presents the results of the workshop on capacity-building for the implementation of the CITES Appendix-II listing of mahogany.

Published:  October 2004
ID number:  TS-22
ISBN :  4 902045 14 1

For services rendered

This report describes the current status and future potential of markets for the ecosystem services provided by tropical forests.

Published:  June 2004
Author:  S. Scherr, A. White & A. Khare
ID number:  TS-21
ISBN :  4-902045-10-9

Reviving tropical plywood

This report identifies measures to bring increased transparency to the tropical hardwood plywood trade and analyses the causes of market fluctuations and price volatility.

Published:  May 2004
Author:  Lamon Rutten and Tan Seng Hock
ID number:  TS-20
ISBN :  4-902045-09-5

Forest certification: pending challenges for tropical timber

This report identifies the key challenges that tropical producers must meet if they are to increase the area of certified forest and the volume of certified timber they put on the market.

Published:  October 2002
Author:  Richard Eba'a Atyi and Markku Simula
ID number:  TS-19
ISBN :  4-902045-00-1

Downturn in the international tropical timber market

The tropical timber trade was damaged by the 1997/98 Asian economic crisis. This paper discusses some of the measures that might be taken to assist its recovery.

Published:  September 1999
Author:  Geoffrey Pleydell and Ivan Tomaselli
ID number:  TS-17

Impediments to market access for tropical timber

This survey assesses, among other things, how market access for tropical timber products is influenced by governments, professional associations, industrial and retail sectors, international organizations and other non-government groups.

Published:  May 1999
Author:  Tan Sri Dato' W K Choon and J Michael Ginnings
ID number:  TS-16

Timber certification in transition

This report was commissioned by the International Tropical Timber Council in 1995 as part of the Council's ongoing analysis of the certification issue.

Published:  May 1996
Author:  Baharuddin Haji Ghazali and Markku Simula
ID number:  TS-14