Illegal logging and associated trade are the cause of many economic and ecological problems both in timber producer and timber consumer countries. The key problem to be addressed by this project is the weak capacity in forest law enforcement. DNA marker methods use characters inherent in the timber (i.e. impossible to falsify) and guarantee a method, which is cost effective and statistically robust, for controlling the origin of wood and wood products. We propose to develop a two-year project on species identification and timber tracking system using DNA methods for important Indonesian timber tree species, the red meranti group; and light red Meranti. For two of these species we will sample leaf, cambium and wood samples from across their distribution area. We will develop gene markers that differentiate genetically between trees of different locations and also work for processed timber. The samples will be screened for DNA markers and provide a genetic reference data base to control the region of origin. Using DNA-fingerprints a tree by tree approach to control the chain of custody will also be applied for light red meranti in cooperation with timber companies in Indonesia. As measures of capacity building and technology transfer, staff from the Indonesian partners will be trained to apply DNA-techniques to perform simple DNA tests to check origin. The University of Adelaide in Australia is the executive agency and will work closely with CFBTI in FORDA and other institutes from Indonesia, Germany and USA.