Beginning in 1992, concerted efforts began to list wide-ranging and economically important timber species in the CITES Appendices, the most notable being afrormosia (Pericopsis elata, listed in Appendix II in 1992), bigleaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla, listed in Appendix III by several countries since the mid-1990s and in Appendix II with effect from 2003) and ramin (Gonystylus spp, listed in Appendix III by Indonesia since 2001 and in Appendix II with effect from 2005). Appendix II listing means that exports of specified products made from these timber species (primary products for the first two but all—including secondary—products of ramin) require certificates from any exporting country stating that the export of those specimens would not be detrimental to the species' future survival in the wild. These so-called non-detriment findings (NDFs) are essentially confirmation of the sustainable production of exports of these timber species, providing a clear link between the requirements of CITES and the work of ITTO.
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