What are degraded primary tropical forests, degraded tropical forests, and secondary tropical forests?

Degraded primary forest


A degraded primary forest is a primary forest in which the initial cover has been adversely affected by the unsustainable harvesting of wood and/or non-wood forest products so that its structure, processes, functions and dynamics are altered beyond the short-term resilience of the ecosystem; that is, the capacity of the forest to fully recover from exploitation in the near to medium term has been compromised.

Secondary forest


A secondary forest comprises woody vegetation regrowing on land that was largely cleared of its original forest cover (ie carried less than 10% of the original forest cover). Secondary forests commonly develop naturally on land abandoned after shifting cultivation, settled agriculture, pasture, or failed tree plantations.

Degraded forest land


Degraded forest land is former forest land severely damaged by the excessive harvesting of wood and/or non-wood forest products, poor management, repeated fire, grazing or other disturbances or land-uses that damage soil and vegetation to a degree that inhibits or severely delays the re-establishment of forest after abandonment.