What are degraded primary tropical forests, degraded tropical forests, and secondary tropical forests?

Degraded primary forest

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A degraded primary forest is a primary forest in which the initial cover has been adversely affected by the unsustainable harvesting of wood and/or non-wood forest products so that its structure, processes, functions and dynamics are altered beyond the short-term resilience of the ecosystem; that is, the capacity of the forest to fully recover from exploitation in the near to medium term has been compromised.


Secondary forest

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A secondary forest comprises woody vegetation regrowing on land that was largely cleared of its original forest cover (ie carried less than 10% of the original forest cover). Secondary forests commonly develop naturally on land abandoned after shifting cultivation, settled agriculture, pasture, or failed tree plantations.


Degraded forest land

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Degraded forest land is former forest land severely damaged by the excessive harvesting of wood and/or non-wood forest products, poor management, repeated fire, grazing or other disturbances or land-uses that damage soil and vegetation to a degree that inhibits or severely delays the re-establishment of forest after abandonment.